The pathophysiology of chronic asthma is complex

The pathophysiology of chronic asthma is complex, in that it involves smooth-muscle dysfunction, acute and chronic inflammation, and structural changes within the airway, collectively termed airway remodeling. It has generally been assumed that airway inflammation is responsible for the various manifestations of asthma including shortness of breath, wheezing, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, smooth-muscle dysfunction and, ultimately, structural changes. However, inflammation is not the sole mediator of this disease. As effective as inhaled glucocorticoid therapy is, it alone is often insufficient to adequately control asthma in patients with moderate-to-severe persistent asthma. 4

In addition, multiple studies have shown that doubling the dose of inhaled glucocorticoid in patients inadequately controlled on inhaled glucocorticoid therapy Generic Viagra pharmacy alone fails to provide significant improvement in efficacy, while increasing the potential for systemic and adverse effects. This unresponsiveness calls into question the paradigm that airway inflammation is solely responsible for the manifestations of asthma and that glucocorticoid-independent mechanisms need to be considered. Whether this reflects our limited understanding of the pathogenesis of airway remodeling and/or a lack of effective therapies to target glucocorticoid-insensitive mechanisms remain an open issue.

The literature describing the pathology of severe, steroid-dependent childhood asthma is virtually nonexistent. This case series is among the first to combine historical and clinical features, pulmonary physiology, and endobronchial biopsy results in a group of children with severe steroid-dependent asthma. All of the subjects studied had a long, if not lifelong Cialis in Canada history of severe, persistent, high-risk asthma refractory to aggressive management that included long-term oral and high-dose inhaled glucocorticoid therapy.

A majority of these patients had been intubated at least once due to severe asthma exacerbations. In every case, the endobronchial biopsies revealed significant changes to the structure of the airways, with little to no airway inflammation present. These findings suggest that noninflam-matory-mediated mechanisms may contribute to severe asthma in children.

By admin on October 17, 2014 | Asthma, Critical Care

Radiographic Fibrosis

It is unknown if the radiographic fibrosis score predicts mortality in persistent hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and if survival is similar to that observed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) when adjusting for the extent of radiographic fibrosis.

We reviewed records from 177 patients with HP and 224 patients with IPF whose diagnoses were established by multidisciplinary consensus. Two thoracic radiologists scored high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan lung images. Independent predictors of transplant-free survival were determined using a Cox proportional hazards analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed, stratified by disease Viagra 100mg pills  as well as fibrosis score.

HRCT scan fibrosis score and radiographic reticulation independently predicted time to death or lung transplantation. Clinical predictors included a history of cigarette smoking, auscultatory crackles on lung examination, baseline FVC, and FEV1/FVC ratio. The majority of HP deaths occurred in patients with both radiographic reticulation and auscultatory crackles on examination, compared with patients with only one of these manifestations (P < .0001). Patients with IPF had worse survival than those with HP at any given degree of radiographic fibrosis (hazard ratio 2.31; P < .01).

Survival in patients with HP was superior to that of those with IPF with similar degrees of radiographic fibrosis. The combination of auscultatory crackles and radiographic reticulation identified patients with HP who had a particularly poor outcome.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a diffuse parenchymal lung disease characterized by an immunologic reaction to an inhaled organic antigen. Patients with HP, especially those with acute manifestations, generally have a favorable outcome, particularly when the causative antigen is identified and removed. However, patients may alternatively develop a chronic form of disease that can be characterized by the presence of fibrosis on histopathologic or radiographic evaluation. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics show that age-adjusted mortality rates from HP have increased significantly (P < .0001) from 0.09 to 0.29 per million between 1980 and 2002 in US adults. Both radiographic and pathologic fibrosis are associated with an increase in all-cause mortality in HP, but it is unclear if these are independent risk factors when adjusting for other clinical and physiologic predictors.

By admin on October 9, 2014 | Asthma

What Is Asthma? An Introduction to the Basics of Asthma

Asthma is very common among children, teens and adults. It is a disease that causes the lungs to tighten. An asthma attack is when your lungs are not getting enough air to breathe. The symptoms include: trouble breathing, wheezing, coughing, chest pain and chest tightness.

First of all, drugs alone will never affect a cure and the condition will become more firmly established over the years although drug is needed in some cases to relieve the symptoms. There is evidence to suggest that chronic allergic asthma in a young person which responds easily to inhaled steroids will gradually becomes irreversible chronic bronchitis for which steroid are little use.

The following can be done as part of a holistic plan:

(a) Identify the culprits

All allergens and irritants can be reduced to some extent but you need to know what you are allergic to and how to avoid them properly. Dust mites, pollen, animal hair and danders, waste, moulds and fungi are all going to be problematic. If you are not sure what causes your allergies, a skin prick test, blood test (RAST) and IgE antibodies test may help you to some extent.

(b) Clean your house properly

Dust mites excrete tiny particles into the air each day. It’s the protein in it that irritates people, causing allergic rhinitis. Dust mites can be gotten rid of and you need a very powerful vacuum cleaner (vacuum slowly and patiently for about five minutes one square foot) or by exposing them to extreme temperature, such as a 60 degrees washing machine cycle or around 12 hours in the freezer. A superficially clean house is not necessarily allergen free as the mites are usually inside cushions, sofas, pillows, mattresses and other bedding and puff out when you lay or sit on it.

You should swap carpets for wooden floors, remove pets from your house, invest in a good dehumidifier and vacuum cleaner; swap curtains for blinds, meticulously vacuum or steam clean your carpet and soft furnishings, hot wash and change your bedding and mattress covers; wipe all surfaces in the kitchen and bathroom with a chemical free cleaner (or simple mix water with lemon juice and vinegar) to wash away moulds and bacteria deposits. Note that dust mites flourish in a moist environment and that is why a dusty home which is dry may contain very few dust mites or dust mite allergens whereas a superficially clean home engaged in frequent dry-dusting can boost levels of dust mite allergens in the air.

By Health Care on March 31, 2011 | Asthma

Major Symptoms of Asthma


Asthma is a chronic lung disease that causes difficulty of breathing. In this condition, the inside walls of airways become swollen and sore. The exact cause of this health condition is still unknown. However, there are some factors that are being considered to cause asthma. The risk factors include family history with asthma, airway hyper activity, obesity, atopy, infections, exposure to cigarette, obesity and many others.

Whenever the breathing passage become infected or irritated, an attack can be triggered. This attack may develop slowly or abruptly. The main symptoms that signal the attack are wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, chronic cough and difficulty in speaking.

Wheezing is a common symptom that can be found in a person with asthma. It is characterized as high pitch whistle sound as you breath through your nose or mouth. Wheezing occurs when the airway of the lungs are narrowed as a result for inflammation. If wheezing occurs even you are without asthma, you should consult it with your healthcare provider. Shortness of breath is another symptoms associated with asthma. It is usually associated with difficulty of breathing and fatigue. A person that has shortness of breath but without asthma should schedule appointment with their doctor. An asthma patient experiencing shortness of breath may signal worsening and poor control of symptoms. Chest tightness usually occurs in patient with asthma. As the airway become inflamed, chest tightness may occur due to inability to move air properly. Inflammation, muscle tightness and mucous may also occur. Chest tightness can be increase with stress and anxiety. Chronic cough is a common symptom of asthma which is usually occurs at night.

If a person with asthma is admitted to the hospital, the doctor will provide some test to assess the severity of the attack. The tests measurements that are usually done to test breathing are spirometer, oximeter and peak flow meter.

Spirometer is a tool that is used to measure the amount of air you can exhale normally and forcefully. This test may be done before or after taking your inhaled medications.

Oximeter is a painless probe that is placed onto the fingertip. It is used to measure the amount of oxygen in the blood.

Peak flow meter is another tool that is used to measure amount of air as you exhale forcefully.

People with asthma should not be afraid of living their life to the fullest. Proper assessment and management of symptoms allows the people to limit or reduce the frequency of their attacks.

By admin on March 15, 2011 | Asthma

The Best Way How To Treat Children With Asthma Naturally

In a nutshell, the best and the only way you should be treating childhood asthma is as naturally as possible. That includes addressing the 4 key factors for natural asthma management.
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The 4 key factors are, Diet, Exercise or Fitness, Environment and the most important Breathing. There is a lot of information I notice all over the internet information for asthmatics on diet, exercise, air filters, dust mites, mold, pollens and dehumidifiers. BUT rarely do I see sites talking about the most important thing, BREATHING.

With proper breathing asthma is going to vastly improved over improper breathing.

Asthma is a difficult condition for even adults to properly manage, imagine as a child. The younger the person with asthma is, the more problems, stress and anxiety asthma can cause. A child lacks the communication and understanding skills of an adult. They cannot control their emotions and may not be aware of all of their triggers for asthma. Therefore, a child suffering from asthma will need a lot of support from parents, care givers and teachers when at school, to be able to cope and live happily despite the ever-present risk of asthma.

The biggest challenge or the MOST IMPORTANT thing that you need to do as a parent is instill confidence in your child over their asthma. For them to feel confident over their asthma, it is important that they completely understand it. They need to be educated. They must be aware of what will happen during an asthma attack, what causes them and what to do in the presence of one if you or nobody else is around.

Sometimes the information that you need is not found where you think it should be. Your local Doctor, may not be aware of the many effective natural treatments for asthma. They may not have heard of breathing training for asthma. They may refuse to believe that certain anti-inflammatory foods can help. They have many conditions that they have to treat and it’s hard to be an expert on all of them. Not to mention that they are trained to prescribe pharmaceuticals. But that doesn’t mean we should not explore natural solutions, especially for our children.

Thankfully there are many natural options available to treat childhood asthma naturally, that do work. It is important to follow expert medical advice; however a natural solution to a natural problem, in my opinion should always be sort first before resorting to drugs.

Diet, exercise and the environment that you live in all play a part in how asthma is managed, however nothing is more important than proper breathing.

By Health Care on March 2, 2011 | Asthma

Causes and Symptoms of Asthma

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, but the exact cause of it remains unknown. There are, however, certain triggers that researchers have identified that cause asthma in some people. What happens is that when triggers come into contact with the airways, the airways become narrow and inflamed and begin to fill with mucus.

People who suffer from asthma are referred to as asthmatics, and they may be affected by long term asthma or periodic, recurrent asthma. Since scientists have not identified a particular cause of asthma, there are no known cures for this disease. It can be properly managed, however, so that people can lead normal, productive lives without constantly suffering.

Common Asthma Triggers

About 80% of people with asthma suffer from allergies, so there is a definite link between these. Allergies to airborne substances such as pollen, mold, pet dander, grass, trees, weed pollens, and dust mites all contribute to the development of asthma in many people.

Food additives are another cause of asthma in some people, but it is not common for people to develop asthmatic symptoms from these. Some of the most common food additives that cause allergic symptoms in people include:

  • Shellfish
  • Fresh fruits
  • Eggs
  • Cow’s milk
  • Wheat
  • Soy
  • Peanuts
  • Fish

Some people, on the other hand, only suffer from asthma when participating in physical activity, particularly strenuous exercise. Exercise-induced asthma causes people to feel chest tightness, coughing, and difficulty breathing during the first five minutes or so of a workout. Even after symptoms subside, some people are prone to developing another asthmatic episode hours after they have finished working out.

Symptoms of Asthma

For people with asthma, their symptoms present themselves whenever their airways fill with mucus, tighten or become inflamed. The classic symptoms of asthma are:

  • Pain, pressure, or tightness in the chest
  • Shortness of breath
  • Coughing (particularly at night)
  • Wheezing

All people who have asthma do not necessarily experience the exact same type or severity of symptoms. In fact, your symptoms may vary a bit from one asthma attack to another, making it sometimes difficult to properly diagnose this condition and rule out the possibility of other health problems being present.

Asthma attacks often present more severe symptoms than the classic symptoms of asthma. It is important to know the warning symptoms that indicate a building asthma attack so that medical assistance can be obtained as quickly as possible.

  • Severe wheezing
  • Extremely rapid breathing
  • Pale face
  • Uncontrollable coughing
  • Tightened neck or chest muscles
  • Pain or pressure in the chest
  • Feeling anxious or panicky
  • Blue fingernails or lips
  • Difficulty talking

If left untreated, an asthma attack will cause a person’s breathing to become more labored. It is very important that people receive medical treatment during an asthma attack because the symptoms will continue to progressively get worse. In fact, if asthma attacks are left untreated, they usually result in death because a person becomes unable to breathe over time. It is not a condition that will simply go away or get better on its own.

The most important thing for asthmatics to do is keep regular appointments with their doctor. Having checkups as a part of your routine will help you to keep your asthma symptoms in check and under control.

By Health Care on November 10, 2010 | Asthma

Himalayan Salt Lamps, a Hidden Secret to Health

There are many hidden secrets are available in the earth but a bird eye view or unawareness of things can hide the reality. However the newest technique in today’s market for propping up the health & goodness of your family is in the course of the use of Himalayan Salt Lamps. Everyday with lots of latest methods using in the market are claiming to improve the health and welfare of people therefore one possibly wary about something exclusive. Various practices recommend the routine intake of natural herbal medicine however people have to be careful about everything that is put inside the human bodies either it is natural or else. Supplementary techniques advise to purchase of costly machines which will hypothetically promote best health although this increases money concerns as these devices can be costly. By using it cost are not an issue.

Pure Himalayan Salt Lamps is made from a piece of salt crystal rock which was obtained from the salt mines that discovered in caves of the Himalaya Mountains. The Himalaya crafts use of the natural resources that have been sealed for millions of years, discharging their unique properties by heating from an electric bulb or from the glow of a candle. These unique and special properties produced from the Salt Lamp are liable to promote the health people through ionization of the air as well as the abolition of pollution. However the special features of the Himalayan Salt Lamp hold negative ions that are active on the impurity in the air through neutralizing them and considering them downward, therefore they can no more circulate. When this happens so the people can take breaths more easily and lots of illness and allergies that often afflict them start to vanish.

You can get salt lamps in various designs, sizes, and weights as well. On the other hand many people have the priority to buy natural shape salt lamps as they provide to the nature as well as the environment while promoting better health and wellness. Many of them like to accompaniment the aesthetics of their interior decoration and pick the shaped items. Salt lamps manufacturing in a pyramid design shaped lamps and globe shaped salt Himalayan lamps as well as a bowl shaped salt lamps which comprises small salt pieces within or even a cross shaped salt Himalayan lamps are available throughout the globe.

Himalayan salt lamps prevent allergy symptoms from surfacing as well as facilitate quell other illnesses for example Attention Deficit Disorder etc. It besides has a healing effect on the human skin and also the mind supporting attention and focus as well. So we can say that they are the natural ionizers and it is the really hidden truth that will hide from us if we unable to understand its features and its need. Therefore we can conclude that an open definition of a salts lamp is an overall healing machine that supports the health of individuals who are the user of this machine.

By Health Care on November 6, 2010 | Asthma

Home Remedies for Asthma

Asthma is not an uncommon name in the medical world, as this respiratory disease has affected millions across the globe regardless of age and gender with a gradual increase in the number of sufferers. Patients suffering from asthma seem to be gasping for air due to the blockage of the air passages that aid in breathing, and in many cases it turns out to be chronic. Allergens are the major contributing factors for this condition, when the body reacts to a special group of foreign bodies resulting in this troublesome condition. The common allergens responsible for this ailment are pollens, dust mites, smoke, some food items, drugs and other chemicals. In many cases the disease subsides with time but the chronic sufferers must be under proper medication or it may turn out to be life threatening.


Asthmatic patients suffer from frequent attacks of breathlessness and spasms in the chest. Other indications of this disorder are:

1. Coughing and wheezing, which worsens at night or in early morning
2. Mild fever
3. Chest congestion


The exact cause of Asthma still remains unexplained but a drop in the body immunity level is one of the vital causes. Some other factors are:

1. Over exposure to various allergens like pollens, dust and chemicals.
2. Changes in the weather conditions
3. Prolonged suffering from respiratory tract infection.
4. Pregnancy can induce Asthma in few cases.
5. Heredity

Home Remedies for Asthma

Regular practicing of simple home remedies can be equally effective in preventing and treating Asthma, without the intervention of drugs and other decongestant sprays.

1. Honey is a very important constituent in treating asthma through various remedies. Simply inhaling honey from a jug during the asthmatic attack eases the breathing within few minutes.

2. Radish, honey and lemon juice are blended in a mixer and cooked in low flame for few minutes. Taking one teaspoon of this mixture daily in the morning is a good remedy for asthma.

3. Taking a mixture of powdered ginger root, black pepper and a teaspoon of honey is another useful remedy for asthma.

4. Drinking a cup of hot tea made from licorice root is one of the best remedies for asthma.

5. Inhaling few drops of essential oils of the Juniper herb mixed in hot water clears the breathing passages and provides relief.

6. Drinking hot and steaming ginger tea with few minced pieces of garlic cloves in the morning and evening gives good results in treating asthma.

7. Regular physical exercises, swimming and deep breathing exercises are extremely beneficial for chronic asthmatic patients that prevent recurrence of the disease.

By Health Care on September 30, 2010 | Asthma
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How Do Asthma Inhalers Work?

The dramatic symptoms of asthma including coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing are caused by three events in the airways:

  • the lining of the airways beginning to swell
  • mucus being secreted
  • the muscles that surround the airway going into spasm

There are two types of asthma inhalers called bronchodilators that counteract all three of these events and open (dilate) your airways (bronchi).

Controller Inhalers

Sometimes called preventers, these inhalers are used every day to reduce inflammation. If you have been diagnosed with asthma, your airways will always be more swollen than those of somebody without the condition. By using an asthma controller each morning and evening, you can reduce that baseline swelling in your airways. If you now come across an asthma trigger causing your airways to swell even more, the resulting inflammation will not be as severe. Controller inhalers can also make you less reactive to those triggers.

The most effective controller inhalers use low doses of steroids called corticosteroids. They should be used every day even if you are feeling well; otherwise the asthma symptoms can come back. There also exist combination inhalers which include steroid prevention medication along with a long-lasting reliever medication.

Reliever Inhalers

These emergency inhalers are often referred to as rescue inhalers. They are to be used only when you feel your airways tighten and it is hard to breathe. Your symptoms will go away fast and you will feel instant relief. These inhalers work by relaxing the muscles around the airways making the airways wider. They do not however, have an effect on inflammation or build up of mucus; so you must continue to take your controller medication for those. You can use a rescue inhaler up to four times a day until your symptoms subside. You may also be advised by your doctor to use the inhaler before sports or other activities.


Of the more popular types of inhalers are MDI’s, or metered dose inhalers. The medicine is in the form of a mist and comes out when you press down the inhaler. You may want to use a spacer, sometimes referred to as a holding chamber with your metered device which enables the medicine to reach deep into your airways with less remaining in your mouth. A spacer helps reduce the risk of side effects of bronchodilators including hoarseness or irritation of the throat or tongue.

Controller and reliever inhalers work the same way though the medicine inside is for different purposes. To make distinguishing between the two easier, rescue inhalers are blue while controller inhalers come most often in orange and brown but are available in purple and red.

By Health Care on August 17, 2010 | Asthma
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Asthma Treatment

Treating asthma is not exactly an easy thing to do. Mostly, it comes with a variety of other complications, making it difficult to tackle right away. This is why asthma treatment guidelines are in place so people can have a better idea about the disease and on handling it.

But did you know that aside from the general guidelines most people know, there are also the ones hidden from the public knowledge? This is good news, since it gives asthma patients more options in dealing with their ailment.

So, what are these asthma treatment guidelines that you must know about?

Here the top five examples:

1. Study your conditions well. By taking note of what triggers and causes your asthma attack, you can be able to better inform your doctors about it, helping them give you the right diagnosis and medications. You don’t even have to be a rocket scientist to do this; just keep in mind to take note, even mental ones, about what has caused your recent episodes as that can help you understand your own ailment’s patterns.

2. Understand more about asthma. By learning more about asthma, you can better have an idea about what’s happening in your body. This can lessen your anxiety and help you deal with your condition better. If you understand your ailment, you can also have a good idea what has been causing your attacks and what first aid methods should you do to give yourself some relief.

3. Avoid triggers. Most asthma attacks are triggered by one thing or another. So, if you know what triggers your episodes, you can know how to avoid them to help you cut down your attacks.

4. Practice natural methods of treatment. Another one of the best asthma treatment guidelines to keep in mind is to try natural means of treating your asthma. Methods like herbal treatments and home remedies are proven to help manage and keep attacks to a bare minimum.

5. Let the people around you know about your condition. By informing the people around you about your condition, they can be more sensitive and help you deal with your ailment. Plus, there’s nothing to be ashamed of when it comes to having asthma, so make sure to let your friends know about your problem – who knows, they might even help you further in dealing with your condition.

These are just some of the hidden asthma treatment guidelines that can surely help you in dealing with your disease. Keep these things in mind, along with the other ways of treating asthma, and you can be sure to have an easier time living with the said chronic disease.

Treat Asthma With a Better Diet

Asthma is definitely on the rise in this country. Penis growth pills hepls you with penis enlargement problem. It holds true for both children and adults. If not treated properly Asthma can make life very difficult for a person as well as being very dangerous. In worst case scenario it can even cause death. There are many medications and treatments that do help people today who are living with asthma, but along with these methods a specific Asthma diet can also be a great help. In this article I will give you some help with choosing the right type of diet for your asthma.

  • First, each day you want to eat more fresh and raw foods. It is best if you can learn to stay away from processed foods. It has been shown that processed foods tend to produce more mucus. If you start eating more fresh fruits and vegetables as well as well as whole grains seeds and lean poultry and fish you will notice a dramatic drop in the amount of mucus you produce.
  • Second, drinking water is essential to controlling your Asthma. Not only should you drink water but you should drink regularly throughout the day. I suggest a glass around every 2 hours. This helps to prevent mucus build up therefore preventing Asthma attacks.
  • Third, eat a substantial amount of garlic and onions to your diet. Both of these 2 foods contain an anti inflammatory property that helps to relieve Asthma attacks. Try to add these two ingredients to your food for taste as well as the great medicinal value they have.
  • Fourth, eat plenty of foods with fatty acids as well as foods containing flax seed oil. Fatty acids work to reduce inflammation and relieve Asthma symptoms.
  • Lastly, be aware of what you eat and take notice of what foods could possibly trigger an attack and try to stay away from these foods. What you eat may not cure your Asthma, but by what you do eat can have a big impact on your Asthma.